Že nekaj časa zbiram fotoaparate. Tiste, malenkost starejše oz. kot jim pravijo “vintage” fotoaparati. Sicer moja zbirka ni velika in tudi fotoaparati niso eni tistih “in oh in sploh” katerih cene so astronomsko visoke. (to še pride 🙂 )
Pa vendar, nima vsak tega in mislim, da tudi ni veliko ljudi, kateri bi se s tem ukvarjali. Trentno je moj najstarejši aparat star blizu 100let, v povprečji so bili narejeni nekje med leti 50-70. Kakorkoli že jih je pa lepo videt na polici 😉
Kako sem prišel do njih?
Večinoma sem jih kupil preko spleta. (Ebay, ipd). Ostale pa sem dobil od prijateljev in znancev, katerim je to predstavljalo le kramo. No, ne vem zakaj mi jih je Tomo nekaj odstopil, saj jih tudi on zbira. Vsekakor pa upam, da ima še kdo to “kramo” in ne ve kam z njo. Ločevanje odpadkov namreč ne predvideva “starih fotoaparatov”.
Spodaj so opisi mojih fotoaparatv. Zaenkrat so Angleškem jeziku, ko bo čas pa jih še prevedem. Vir: http://camerapedia.wikia.com
The Zenit E was a Russian-built SLR camera body for M42 screw lenses, made from 1965-1968. The Zenit range was quite popular since it was priced moderately and it was offered under several other trademarks or brands (Kalimar, Revueflex, Prinzflex, Photokina, Spiraflex, Cosmorex).
The camera offered fixed 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250 and 1/500 shutter speeds. It also had manual control for long duration exposures. Focusing was done either by the optimal image sharpness in the viewfinder or simply setting the distance in the distance scale. The distance scale was drawn against the calculator scale, showing the acceptable tolerance, depending on aperture. The minimal focusing distance was about 0.65m with the Industar 50 (50mm f3.5) objective (and 0.46m with the Helios-44 58mm f2) but a set of rings was manufactured for this camera, allowing to do the close distance macro pictures.
It had a selenium meter. The meter’s photo cell was placed above the lens mount behind a protecting window, and its instrument was placed beside a two-slice analog exposure calculator. A ring in the meter was coupled to that calculator on which the film speed had to be preselected, and when the meter’s needle matched the ring the calculator showed the correct shutter-speed/aperture combinations. This device was not connected to the actual speed/aperture controls.
The Zenit B was similar to the E, but without the meter.
Here the data of the Version “Prinzflex 500E”
- Type: SLR body
- Manufacturer: KMZ
- Film: 35mm, with speeds 16 to 500 ASA
- Lens mount: M42 screw mount without aperture release shifter
- Shutter: focal plane textile shutter, speeds 1/30 up to 1/500 sec. + B, switchable to flash synchro-mode (1/30s)
- Viewfinder: pentaprism finder, little round diopter correction lens mountable
- film advance: film advance lever, hidden rewind knob extends out from meter control
- Dimensions:137×92×53 mm
- Self-timer: with own release button and 15 sec. delay-time
Zorki-4 is a 35 mm rangefinder camera, manufactured by Krasnogorsky Mekhanichesky Zavod (KMZ) , (Красногорский механический завод = Mechanical Factory of Krasnogorsk), near Moscow, former USSR and produced between 1956-73, quantity 1715677. ЗОРКИЙ = Zorkiy, means Sharp Sight. Zorki-4 was possibly the most popular of all Zorki cameras. The Zorki-4 was also the first of the Zorki cameras to be exported in large numbers to the west.
When the Zorki-4 rangefinder was introduced in 1956, its contemporaries included the Zorki S, Zorki 2S, FED 2b, Leica M3 (introduced two years before), Leica IIIg, Nikon S2, Canon VT, Canon L1. The Zorki 4’s production run outlasted all of them. When it morphed into the Zorki-4K by 1973, its contemporaries included the FED 4b, Leica M4 and M5, Nikon F2, and Canon F-1 and Canon Canonet QL 17 GIII.
The Zorki-4 is basically a Zorki-3S with a self-timer. It retained all of the features and strong points of the 3S. The early bodies have vulcanite body covering, engraved shutter speeds – 1s, 1/5, 1/10, 1/25, 1/50, 1/100, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000 +B – and strap lugs. Later bodies (post ~1965) have fabric covering and the more modern base 2 logarithmic shutter speed progression: 1s, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000 and the figures are silk-screened. By the mid-sixties, the strap lugs had disappeared.
- Lens: Zorki-4 was supplied with either a Jupiter-8 (ЮРИТЕП) 50mm f/2, or Industar-50 (ИНДУСТАР) 50mm f/3.5 lens; several other lenses were available. The lens is interchangeable, M39 screw mount
- Focusing: Matching yellow rangefinder images in the finder, ring and scale on the lens, w/DOF scale
- Shutter: Horizontal travelling focal plane, rubberized silk double cloth curtain, speeds: 1-1/1000 +B, setting dial on the top plate, lift and turn
- Viewfinder: Coupled viewfinder/rangefinder, large and bright; Diopter adjustment lever: beneath the re-wind knob
- Take-up spool: special, not captive, there is a small pin for attaching the film perforates on it
- Engravings on the back of the top plate: KMZ logo and the serial number
- Body: Metallic, cast aluminum; Weight: 687g
- Serial no. first two digits correspond to the production year
- As with other Soviet-era rangefinders, the shutter speed selector rotates when the shutter is released, and should not be changed until after the shutter has been cocked. If you change the shutter speed without cocking the shutter first, the setting pin can be broken when you advance the film and cock the shutter.
The FED 3 is a Ukrainian rangefinder camera inspired by classic Leicas. Over two million were produced between 1961-79. It takes 35mm film. The FED 3 is am evolution of the FED 2 and the dimensions of the two bodies are identical. The top deck is modified because the FED 3 has to have a shorter rangefinder baseto make room for the slow-speed mechanism. Shutter speeds are 1 sec, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15, 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500s and “B”. In common with many Soviet-era cameras, the shutter must be cocked before the speed is altered.
There are four definable models in the FED 3 series.
- FED 3a was introduced in 1961. It retained most of the FED 2 features, including the mushroom-shaped advance knob. The rewind knob is larger. The diopter is no longer adjusted by a lever but is adjusted by the ring over the viewfinder.
- FED 3b was introduced in 1963. It has a film advance lever and a flat top deck. It had no strap lugs, but an ever-ready case was originally available. The FED 3b is usually fitted with an Industar 26M or Industar 61 lens. These are interchangeable with other lenses with an M39 mount, but are not 100% compatible with the Leica standard.
- FED 3L was introduced along with the 3b in 1963, and has a body like the 3a but a different shutter speed knob. The knob on a 3L resembles the ones on the FED 3b; the speeds are engraved on a plate beneath the knob instead of on the knob itself. The shutter speed plate is clipped where the top deck steps down. Usually fitted with an Industar 61 lens.
- FED 3L/D is a FED 3L with a multi-coated Industar 61 L/D containing Lanthane.
The Regula IIIa is the most basic of the III series, a simple viewfinder with no bright lines and no light meter. It does have a full speed range Prontor-SVS shutter which is much better than older basic Regulas; the previous Regula II base model had a manually cocked shutter!
The IIIa was also redesigned and re-badged in 1958 as the Mastra V35 for Photopia in the UK.
Date of Production: 1956
Type of Camera: Viewfinder
Film Type: 35mm
Shutter speed range: 1s-1/300th + Bulb
Focus areas: 1m-Infinity
Lubitel (cyrillic: Любитель) means “amateur” in Russian. The Lubitel 2 was made in great numbers by the Leningrad GOMZ (later LOMO) factory. More than two million were produced between 1954 and 1980. There are versions with a cyrillic name plate or with one in latin script as the one shown, and it was rebadged for various other markets as Kalimar TLR100, Amatör II and Global 676. It was also produced as a stereo version and sold as the Спутник (Sputnik). The camera body is made of plastic, possibly bakelite. The waist level finder and focusing rings are made of metal. These cameras were delivered with a case and strap made of artificial leather. There is a stepless aperture scale under the taking lens with apertures from 4.5 to 22. Winding the film is done by a black knob on the right side of the camera. This does not cock the shutter.
The Lubitel has a LOMO T-22 75/4.5 taking lens. It is actually a little wider than the normal 80mm medium format standard lens. The shutter is cocked with a red-dotted lever. The aperture and the shutter button are all positioned around the taking lens.
This basic bakelite pseudo-TLR is attributed to Foka of Rotterdam, but some authorities says Druopta made it. Czechoslovakia c. 1946. Takes 120 film. Taking lens 75mm f8. Fokar 2 shutter 1/25 – 1/100 + B
Repairs: None. Full working condition though shutter speed dial sometimes sticks due to some wear on the plastic underneath.
The Perfekta 1 had a flip-up frame finder, an aperture controlled by a small knob below the lens, and a B/I shutter control on the side of the lens barrel. The shutter-release was a button below the lens, opposite the aperture knob. The design is very much like the Druopta Efekta, except for the placement of the shutter control and release.
The more rounded Perfekta II and Perfekta P66 (c.1956) had a collapsible lens barrel, an optical finder and a ring around the lens to control shutter speed. The shutter-release was moved to the top of the body.
KODAK JUNIOR 620
The Kodak Junior 620 was a self-erecting viewfinder folding camera for type No. 620 film rolls. It was made by the German Kodak AG branch of Kodak in the former Nagel factory in Stuttgart. Its design followed conceptions of earlier Nagel rollfilm folders like the Nagel Triumph:
|Hersteller||Kodak AG, Dr.-Nagel-Werk, Stuttgart|
|Filmtyp||Rollfilm 620, Format 6×9 cm|
|Optik||Kodak Anastigmat 10,5 cm|
|Blendenbereich||7,7 – 22|
|Entfernungseinstellung||2,5 m bis Unendlich|
|Bajonett||Optik fest montiert|
|Objektivschutz||durch die Klappe der Kamera|
|Filtergewinde||Aufsteck-Filter ø27 mm|
|Verschluß||selbstspannend, 1/25 und 1/50 Sek. (Alfred Gauthier, Calmbach), zusätzlich “B” und “T”|
|Sucher||Brilliantsucher, für Hoch- und Querformat drehbar|
|Abmaße||151 x 83 x 35 mm (geschlossen)
151 x 83 x 121 mm (aufnahmebereit)
|Sonstiges||Zweifaches Stativgewinde 3/8″ für Hoch- und Querformataufnahmen. Filmtransportkontrollfenster (rot) auf der Rückseite
Es gibt auch Versionen mit Klapprahmen-Sportsucher.
|Bemerkungen||Aktuelle Rollfilme Typ 120 passen aufgrund geringfügig anderer Spulenmaße nicht in die Junior 620, der Außendurchmesser des Spulenkerns muß etwas verringert werden (Ø23mm, Länge 64mm|
The Clack camera was manufactured by Agfa 1954-65. Earlier models had a metal body, later ones were made of plastic. It is a simple, boxlike camera, with a single-element 95mm meniscus lens with built-in close-up lens and yellow filter. It takes 6×9 cm pictures on 120 film.
To enable this camera to take quality pictures with such a simple lens, it is always stopped down to f/11 or below. The large negative size allows usable contact prints. The negatives don’t need to be enlarged by so great a factor. The best feature is the curved film plane. There’s no pressure plate in the back of the camera; the film isn’t supposed to be flattened. The camera body is oval shaped when viewed from above, and the film is led around the curved back of the camera to create maximum sharpness: an intelligent solution to create a low-cost camera of decent quality.
- Aperture f/11 and f/12.5
- Shutter about 1/30 plus B
- Built-in yellow filter
Zone focusing with two steps:
- 1-3m (3-10 feet) with a built-in close-up lens.
- 3m (10 feet)-infinity with just an aperture ring between the lens and the film
A useable camera
The Clack is a light viewfinder camera. It works great with ISO 50 slide films like Velvia, so use it while you can still get that film. Black and white ISO 50 films, and overexposing 100 speed color negative by one stop ought to be fine.
Loading the camera
Made by LOMO in the city formerly known as Leningrad, the Sokol-2 (Сокол-2) is a fairly common camera in collections, which probably has everything to do with the fact that it was fairly advanced for its time and place. What also helps is that it was exported to Europe as well as sold within the Soviet Union. However its ubiquity can’t conceal the fact that these cameras are marked by a very high malfunction rate – in this case being a heavy brick doesn’t mean having an eternal lifespan. Shoddy isn’t the word, but the world has seen more decent workmanship.
The first camera in the series was the Sokol (“Falcon”) Avtomat, that appeared in 1966. LOMO was obviously inspired by the novel Japanese rangefinder cameras that had a lot of functions for a competitive price. So they designed the Sokol, as a Soviet-Russian attempt to copy what made Japan one of the rising stars in the industry.
The first Sokol has quite some functions up its sleeve. For starters, it had an automatic exposure mode that made things dramatically simpler for the amateur photographer – you push the button, the Sokol does the rest. Manual control was, of course, still an option. The Sokol also had parallax correction and a quite nice one at that: as you focus closer, the framelines shift to the lower right corner. Much better than the usual set of framelines for infinity and close-up. Other features include a large rangefinder base (72mm), a good lens, a Copal-licensed shutter and flash sync at all speeds.
The original Sokol was succeeded in 1969 by a model unchanged except for the number of cells in the lens facade: three instead of six. LOMO probably figured that half the cells did the job just as well for half the price, or perhaps they just doubled their sensitivity and added a transistor. This configuration stayed in production until 1979, when the Sokol-2 was released into the world. To quote Princelle: “Modernised version of the Sokol Avtomat. Identical characteristics”. This would seem to mean that all the changes were either cosmetic or internal, and that the new index number is a bit of a farce. Maybe they did it for marketing reasons. (But in a communist market?)
Perhaps noteworthy is the budget Sokol that was for sale in 1974 and 1975 on the domestic market: this LOMO 130A had only one light meter cell and, in a clear effort to cut the most dramatic costs, lacked the strap lugs.
The Sokol-2 in close-up
The first things that strike when you hold a Sokol-2, are its mass and its dimensions. For its class, it’s a very heavy camera. To blame are the materials of which it’s made: pressed aluminium plate for the top, and cast iron for the carcass. All this metal gives the camera a reassuring solidity, but also contributes to its plumpness.
Its dimensions are remarkable for an amateur camera too, since it’s not only quite long and high, but especially thick. Reason for this is the very large back focus distance needed by the Industar-70 50mm f/2.8 lens. Why LOMO used this lens on an amateur camera I don’t know, but perhaps there is a link to the MMZ Orion KM prototype of 1964, that also had an Industar-70 as lens. Perhaps MMZ made a prototype, ordered lots of Industar-70 lenses, cancelled the Orion KM anyway as too expensive to produce (?), and was stuck with lots of Industar-70’s. Perhaps MMZ, through intervention of the Plan Bureau, donated them to LOMO? I don’t know, but the Industar-70 with its long back focus seems hardly suitable for a relatively simple compact like this. Anyway, size was apparently not an issue when designing this camera, since the roll of film gets generous space inside the camera.
Considering that this is a Soviet-Russian camera that first appeared in the 1960’s, when Leica-II clones still ruled the domestic market, the Sokol-2 has some very advanced features. For instance, it has automatic parallax compensation. As you focus closer, the framelines move more and more to the bottom right corner. Also, the Sokol-2 can be used as a point-and-shoot automatic camera, when set to the ‘A’ position. A system of luminescent arrows in the viewfinder indicate when the light conditions are suitable to take a picture. Thirdly, the Sokol-2 has a precise rangefinder with a very large base (72mm), and a teintless viewfinder. The Sokol-2 also had some minor improvements over other Soviet-Russian cameras of its day, like a hot shoe with incorporated X contact, strap lugs, a hinged back, an automatically resetting exposure counter, and a proper rewind crank.
This camera is a modern one on many respects, and the designers had certainly taken a look at modern Japanese cameras. For example, placing a film is very standard: just drop the cassette in on the left, pull the film lip out, feed it over the sprocket and into the take-up spool, wind on the film a bit, close the back, take three false exposures with the back shut, and the camera’s ready for operation. Similarly standard is rewinding a film: when the film is fully exposed, press the sprocket release button underneath the camera, and rewind the film with the rewind crank. The crank is on the left hand side of the body, and is placed under a 90 degree angle, I suspect as not to confuse the amateur public with knobs and levers and things on the top plate. Often though, the rewind crank has broken off. Apart from my own, I’ve seen several Sokols on eBay which have this problem.
Taking pictures is somewhat less straightforward than with those standard Japanese compacts. The shutter release knob, for example, is not on top of the body as you would expect, but on the front. It’s also not a knob, but a slide that you have to press downwards in order to trip the shutter. On top of the camera, in the place where the shutter release knob is normally found, there is only a cable release connection. The slide cursor could better have been placed a bit more to the top, because as it is now, it’s difficult to reach. I have to stretch my right index finger all the way down to operate the thing.
The Sokol-2 has a single-stroke wind lever, which isn’t exactly well-designed either. The lever is not on top of the camera, but somewhere in the middle. It traverses along the side of the body. What’s worse, is that the wind lever on my Sokol-2 does not block after the current frame is wound on. It’s possible to wind on the whole film without the wind lever ever blocking. That can be very annoying when you put the camera away a few days, then pick it up again, and forgot whether or not you advanced the current frame. You’ll probably advance the frame anyway to be sure, and probably waste the frame in the process. I don’t know if all Sokol-2’s have this problem or that it’s only a particular quirk of my model, but make it a habit to always advance the films after taking an exposure, so that you won’t have any doubts later on.
The Sokol-2’s viewfinder system is fairly advanced. As I said earlier, it has automatic parallax correction and a light meter indication. It’s also neutral-teinted, which is ofcourse better for judging colour. The rangefinder spot is a small bright yellow/greenish rectangle, which because of the large rangefinder base, can be focused precisely.
The light meter indication is done by five luminescent arrows in the viewfinder. All the arrows point downwards. Since I don’t have the manual to this camera I don’t know how the system works, but I guess that you have to try combinations until the middle arrow shows. If you set the camera’s aperture ring beyond f/16 to ‘A’, the camera should automatically find an aperture to suit the currently selected shutter speed. If the camera detects an underexposure, the shutter blocks (but the wind lever doesn’t…)
It’s a pity that the Sokol-2 does not have interchangeable lenses, because as a L39 rangefinder it might have become quite successful. Instead, the Sokol-2 has a fixed Industar-70 50mm f/2.8 lens, that focuses from 0.8m to infinity. The rangefinder coupling is internal. If the pictures I’ve taken with it are representative, its image quality is quite good. It has a rounded-off five-blade aperture, that can be set both manually and automatically. If you want to switch from automatic to manual, you must first unlock the aperture ring by pressing a small iron lip on the bottom right of the lens barrel. Keep it pressed and turn the aperture ring at the same time.
Contrary to such cameras as the Voskhod and the Iskra, the Sokol-2 does not have a shift program, ie. that the apertures and shutter speeds can be shifted onto different values. You can easily mimick that though by grabbing hold of both rings, and moving them together.
The Sokol-2’s meant for export have the film value stated in ASA, where the Sokol-2’s for the internal market are marked GOST. My Sokol-2 takes 20 to 320 ASA film, the sensitivity of which can be set by a ring on the lens facade. The film sensitivity is rather crudely but effectively coupled to the light meter: the less sensitive the film gets, the smaller the aperture hole turned into place over the CdS cells…
What else is there to say about the Sokol-2? Not much, I think. It’s a down to earth camera with some nice features considering the time and place of construction, but nothing truly unique. It’s an amateur camera that, despite some quirks and a deplorable malfunction record, simply takes pictures. Nothing more, nothing less.
The Closter II is an Italian made 35mm viewfinder camera. It was made circa 1950. I has shutter speeds of B 25 50 100 150 and 200. It has a Zeltar 5cm 1:6.3 lens which is focused by the knob on the side of the lens, similar to many vintage rangefinder cameras. It has f-stops of 6.3, 9, and 12.5. Each stop is cut into a piece of metal that rotates between the lenses, so the aperture is perfectly round. This produces a nice bokeh, but you can’t use f-stops between the marked ones. The film loads from the bottom in a fashion similar to leicas.
MINOLTA SRT 101b
The Minolta SR-T 101 is a 35mm SLR camera made by Minolta Camera Co. Ltd, Japan, premiering in the March 1966 Japan Camera Show . Sales began in April 1966 and it stayed in production with only minor changes for ten years, the result of the thorough development effort that was put into the camera. The body is a direct continuation of the Minolta SR-7 model V of 1962, itself an innovative camera. However, the SR-T 101 has many significant features apart from the TTL meter. Perhaps the most notable one was the full aperture metering facility, which automatically compensates for the speed of the lens fitted on the camera at any time, a feature it took Nikon twelve more years to figure out how to accomplish. Full aperture metering in 35mm SLR cameras was pioneered by the brilliant Tokyo Kogaku Topcon RE-Super, a feature lacking in every screw mount camera until Olympus Kogaku introduced the Olympus FTL, their first full frame 35mm SLR in 1971, which was abandoned one year later in favour of the OM system.
The first generation camera body serial numbers started from 1000xxx (see section below). When first introduced, the standard kit lens was the 58mm/f1.4 MC Rokkor-PF, with 6 elements in 5 groups, beginning from lens serial number 5000xxx. About four months after launch, the 55mm/f1.7 MC Rokkor-PF, 6 elements in 5 groups, was added as an alternate kit lens. Then in September 1968, the 58mm/f1.2 MC Rokkor-PG, 7 elements in 5 groups with 8 aperture blades, became available. These earlier kit lenses featured knurled metal barrels, versus later rubber-gripped MC Rokkor-X (or MC Rokkor) versions. A very well crafted ever-ready case was available in either brown or black leather to protect the camera with normal lens. A longer-nosed black ever-ready case was made for the SR-T101 and 58mm/f1.2 combination.
The SR-T has an extremely bright finder with a central micro prism focusing aid that proves to be very accurate in most cases, since even when no visible lines are present in the subject, all out-of-focus objects appear to shimmer. Two exposure meter needles and the selected shutter speed are shown in the viewfinder. A small rectangle to the right indicates the acceptable needle deflection range for a healthy battery when the ON/OFF switch on the camera base is set to the battery check position labelled BC. Battery power is saved by placing the switch in the OFF position whenever the camera is not used. Battery power may also be saved by keeping the lens cap on whenever possible, since the exposure meter draws current in proportion to light intensity entering the camera lens. The metering circuit is dependent on an obsolete mercury battery. It may be replaced using a zinc-air hearing aid 1.4-volt battery, which usually comes in a six-pack and is not very expensive.
Several internal parts may fail on a forty-year-old camera, and the SR-T 101 is no exception. The only serious trouble is related to the exposure meter movement itself, in which the tiny coil tends to break, this situation requires a replacement. The back door rubber sealing foam will usually need replacement, and so will a small strip of same cushioning the mirror when it goes up. A strip of this may be cut from a similar sealing material from a hardware store. All other problems are easily put right with a minimum of effort and tools, unless the camera is worn out, which rarely happens. In fact, anybody who figures out how to remove the top cover without causing any damage may repair it oneself.
How old is my Minolta SR-T 101?
During the ten-year manufacturing period of the Minolta SR-T101, many small changes were made to the camera body. Several of these changes are easily detected and they can help determine time of manufacture to within a few years. It should be noted that any part of a camera may be replaced due to repair and smaller parts are more easily swapped, but normally these features may be considered original. Top cover and base plate are parts usually replaced due to impact damages, and a replacement top cover would not have the original serial number.
1966-late 1969: the first generation 101’s have a finely-knurled black shutter speed barrel (even on chromed body models), and have single slot screws holding the base plate and top cover on, while later generations use Phillips head screws. From 1966 into 1967, the two screws at the back of the top cover were the same distance from the eyepiece, while on all later SR-T‘s the right-hand screw is farther away from the eyepiece. From 1968 on, the black plastic shoulder pieces between the front cover and the top cover are held in place by visible screws. In Fall 1968 Minolta began selling black body SR-T101’s, like image at left, from serial number 1270xxx on.
1970-1973: the second generation and later 101’s have a coarse ridged chromed shutter speed barrel. From 1972 on, as seen on the inside of the top cover, the film counter clear plastic window is glued in place, while on earlier versions it is held in place by an internal bracket.
1973-1975: on the third generation 101’s, the black plastic piece under the accessory shoe protrudes up forming a ridge in front of the shoe, while earlier versions have a single metal peg.
The lack of mirror lockup (MLU) on an SR-T101 is not an exact indicator of its age. MLU first began to be discontinued early in the transition to the second generation, but did continue at least until the third generation SR-T.
Metering: CLC and full aperture TTL
Camera ads from the 1970s boast of its CLC (Contrast Light Compensator) metering, calling it “the brain”. CLC is a form of TTL metering with two CdS cells. It compensates for over-exposure by assuming that the upper side of the picture is the sky (overcast) and that the lower part is the subject you want to photograph. ISO values can be set from 6 to 6400.
The Minolta SR-T 101 was one of the first cameras to have full aperture TTL metering. This was possible thanks to the fact that Minolta had placed the aperture ring on its RokkorMC lenses close to the camera body. This way, the position of the aperture ring could be communicated mechanically to the metering system inside the camera. What is actually transmitted is not the aperture itself, but the offset between the selected aperture and the lens’ maximal aperture.
- The SR-T 101 has a cloth focal plane shutter with speeds from 1 sec to 1/1000. The film advance lever automatically cocks the shutter, preventing double exposures. Shutter speeds are shown at the bottom of the viewfinder.
- It has some interesting features which set it apart from many other SLRs of that time, like mirror lockup, a mechanical self-timer and a depth-of-field preview button.
- The manual-focus Rokkor lenses have a very good reputation and some are very fast: the fastest standard lens in SR-T101 time was 58mm f/1.2 MC Rokkor PG.
- The SR-T 101 uses a PX625 cell for the metering system only. With a dead battery, all functions but the meter will continue to work.
YASHICA ELECTRA 35GS
There are so many Yashica Electro 35 Rangefinder cameras on offer on the web, often with little in their description to differentiate them. Many of these offerings have supporting pictures of dismal quality or are partially cloaked in their cases. Site visitor Lindsey Harris, suggested that a chronology of these cameras would be useful, and kindly provided a sketch, which has been expanded upon below
….the original Model Yashica Electro 35 was introduced in 1966. It is shown here in the brushed satin chrome finish. This model was also available in a black enamel version, which was emblazoned on the lower right front with the emblem “Professional”. The front view is depicted with the optional Tele Adapter and viewfinder. Two demarcation lines appear in this clip-on finder which show the field of view for the Tele or Wide Adapter. This camera has a battery powered aperture preferred automatic exposure system. The ASA range is from 12 to 400. To set the film speed for the automatic exposure control system, a dial which has both ASA and DIN settings is rotated to the required indicator. This round scale has a transparent plastic cover with a dimple that may have been designed to act as a magnifier, but does nothing on my example. Subsequent models only have the prevailing ASA standard on the scale and no protective dial cover. An ASA to DIN conversion table was printed inside the back door of some of the later models.
A major Yashica innovation was a unique automatic all electronic step-less shutter, the speed of which is controlled by an Electro-Magnet. This gave rise to the model designation “Electro”. This technology is shared by some of the Polaroid Land cameras. In 1960 the Polaroid Land 120 made it’s debut…. it was manufactured in Japan by Yashica.
The correct exposure is determined by turning the aperture ring until neither the red or amber lamps are lit. These are visible both on the top of the camera and in the view-finder. A small arrow visible next to the lamps on the top plate, indicates the direction in which the aperture ring must be turned in order to achieve the correct exposure range. It also warns when exposures time will be so long, that a rigid mount is required. The lamp covers on the top have a directional shape. The lamps as they appear in the finder however were round. Among the later design changes, having the shape of these lamps appear as arrows in the finder, was most helpful.
Few examples of the round ‘traffic light’ indicators survive. All of the other cameras in the series shown on this site display Arrow Indicators in the finder.
A shutter release knob threaded to accept a cable extension trigger, and a self timer with a nominal 8 second delay, add icing to the cake of the entire series. The fixed lens is the coated legendary Yashinon DX ƒ1.7 45mm constructed with six optical elements in four groups. The lens mount is threaded to accept 55 mm accessories.
Note the spartan design of the wind lever, a carry over from the earlier classic models. It too, was made over in short order with black trim which also added to the comfort of the user, and this improvement is found in all the other models of the series shown on this site
The published fully automatic exposure range capability of the system was from 30 seconds to 1/500 second as you can see in the accompanying graphic. Far longer accurate time exposures have been repeatedly reported.
The camera was designed to be powered by a Mercury TR 164 / HM-4N 5.6 Volt battery. Due to the hazardous nature of mercury, these batteries are long discontinued. An adapter to use available batteries is described in the link from the Main Page of this site. It powers this model and all of the Yashica Electro G series which follow right through the GSN / GTN up to, and including the MG-1.
The success of this camera with it’s incredibly fast lens at an affordable cost, spurred the introduction of the new model G [defining Ggrade-up] in 1968. There were changes in the cosmetics and it was delivered with a new Yashinon Color designation on the lens. This was added to re-assure the public that the lens was fully Color corrected, at a time when the use of colour film exploded. There was no change to the advanced original design of the lens itself, other than an internal modification of the focus gearing.
The Model G is shown here in satin chrome finish. Starting in 1969 it was also manufactured in a black enamel finish, with the model designation GT. It can be viewed with a link to “Variations” below. The GT was supplied with an exclusive lens shade, which according to the manual, locks the setting in AUTO when mounted. It does that with all the other rangefinder cameras of this series that I have tried it on. There is no mechanical lock as such, depending instead on the fact that moving the setting under ordinary conditions is not easy, and with the lens hood mounted, one simply cannot get enough leverage to move this in error.
The tell-tale identifier of the prior Electro 35, and the G and GT versions is the sculptured recess on the bottom plate. This is an ergonomic design to enable the door to be easily grasped and opened. [See link to variations for detail images and the origin]. This design could provide a means of positive registration on a hand grip / flash bracket or other anticipated mount.
The Electro 35 and the G series viewfinders self adjust to compensate for parallax as the focus ring is turned, another welcome feature. Even the ancient Electro 35 makes focusing in the dimmest light a snap under conditions that would defy focusing an SLR. These models are readily identified, in that they have the rear door release operated by a tab mounted on the bottom of the camera. This is visible on the extreme left of the lower photo. Why this was changed is unclear because it was a trouble free design without the potential for problems that the later combo rewind / door release introduced.
The fold out rewind handle is attached to the shaft by a screw, which makes replacement of the handle spring simple.
A socket is provided on the side of the body for a flash extension cable. This is a PC socket [Photo-Flash Connector]. The term ‘PC’ is said to originate with Prontur Compur, the noted German shutter manufacturer who first introduced this connector, that became an industry wide standard. A cold flash shoe is top mounted. The ASA scale ranges from 12 to 500. The Battery Check Button & Indicator Lamp are framed in white. These cameras are so ideal for working in poor light conditions, that the battery test button also provided the means to light up the frame counter. The Slow / Over Indicator Lamps on the top are trimmed within a black template. The black skin is still a coarse cross hatch, which provides an excellent grip.
….the second generation Electro 35 G introduced the combo door release / rewind handle. One can only speculate that the move to a change in design was to emulate the SLR’s which were taking over the market. There is no hot shoe and it too has a PC socket on the side for a flash synch cable. The fold down rewind handle was still attached with a screw. Notice the flat bottom plate. Viewed directly from the front, it is indistinguishable from it’s predecessor
…the third generation Electro 35 was introduced in 1970. This was available both as the chrome satin Electro 35 GS and the Black enamel finish Electro 35 GT. Yashica also promoted this as the “Gold Mechanica”. All the electrical contact points were gold plated to increase the efficiency of the electrical current flow, and to prevent oxidation from forming which could possibly impede that flow over the course of time.
The GS retained the white template around the battery test button, while at the same time doing away with the test lamp which adjoined it in the G….Why waste battery power with two lamps, right? Pressing the test button lights up the frame counter window only. The GT switched to a black template around the battery test button, which looked so classy that it was adopted in all chrome and black succeeding models. They also heralded the switch over to a simulated leather grain skin…. The combination film door release / rewind handle on the GS and GT are attached to the shaft with a screw. The flash shoe is still not Hot. The ASA scale has been extended to range from 25 to 1000.
Interestingly, the GS and GT as well as later models can be found both made in Japan and assembled in Hong Kong with the key elements, most notably the lens and optical finder originating in Japan. The insert shows a label from the Yashica box of the Hong Kong version.
KODAK INSTAMATIC 100
The model 100 was one of Kodak’s first Instamatic camera released in the USA.
It used the 126 film (Kodapak) cartridge.
The button on the front released a pop-up flash holder for a single AG-1 peanut flashbulb. Elevating the flash holder changes the shutter to 1/40th of a second whether there is a flashbulb in the holder or not.
- Type: viewfinder film camera
- Manufacturer: Kodak
- Production Dates: March 1963 – 1966
- Film: 126 film cartridge
- Lens: 43mm f/11
- Image: nominal 26×26mm (hence 126), actual 29×28mm, masked to 26½×26½mm for printing
- Shutter: mechanical leaf, 1/90 sec. and 1/40 sec. with flash popped up
- Price: $15.95
- Designer: Frank A. Zagara
- Power: 2×AAA batteries for flash
- Tripod Mount: none
KODAK INSTAMATIC 104
Kodak’s greatest success in camera history was the Instamatic camera series for its 126 film cartridge. Sixty million such cameras were sold by Kodak alone, mostly in the 1960s and 1970s. And of course the simplest models of the series were probably the ones which boosted Kodak‘s sales statistics the most. The 104 featured a connector for the new flashcube, instead of the Instamatic 100‘s holder for single flashbulbs. When cocked for the next exposure, the camera turns the flashcube 90 degrees to bring the next flashbulb into position. The cube can be detached by pressing the button on the front of the camera.
- Type: viewfinder film camera
- Manufacturer: Kodak
- Year of launch: 1965
- Film: 126 film cartridge
- Lens: 1:11/43mm
- Shutter: mechanical leaf, with speeds of 1/90 sec. and (with flashcube attached) 1/40 sec.
- Price: $15.95
KODAK INSTAMATIC 133X
The Kodak Instamatic 133 was a 126 cartridge film camera introduced by Kodak in 1968, one of a long line of Instamatics. The 133 had a flashcube socket; the Instamatic 133X was similar, but was fitted for Magicubes.
- Manufacturer: Kodak Ltd, Kodak AG and Kodak Spain
- Designer: Alexander Gow
- Body Styling: Kenneth Grange
- shutter speeds: 1/80 sec. (sunlight), 1/40 sec. (dim light or flash)
- Lens: 1:11/43mm fixed-focus
- Film: 126 cartridge
In the early 1970s there were more families with several children living in Germany than nowadays. And it had become very common that sooner or later the children got a real camera. So it was lucky for the family’s budget that simple cameras were in fashion, the Instamatics of Kodak. These cameras were made by Kodak’s German plant Kodak AG and by its British plant Kodak Ltd. In the 1970s, these factories offered lines of Instamatics styled especially for the home market. One line started with the Instamatic 33, which had a connector for a separate flashgun instead of a flashcube socket. The model numbers in this line ended in “33”; the higher the number, the more features were offered.
KODAK INSTAMATIC 155X
Kodak‘s 155X Instamatic Camera or 155X Câmara Instamatic was a viewfinder camera for 126 (Kodapak) film cartridges – one a large range of Instamatics. It was made by Kodak Ltd. in the UK, Kodak AG in Germany, and Kodak Brasileira Comércio e Indústria Ltda. between September 1971 and 1977. The only adjustment possible was by rotating the lens ring between symbols for Sunny and Cloudy/Flash, which changed the shutter speed. Film advance was by a combination thumbwheel with lever attached.
- Production dates: 1971 – 1977
- Film 126, 28x28mm images
- Lens: Kodar
- Viewfinder: optical
- Flash: Magicubes
The Pouva Start was a great success for Karl Pouva‘s little camera factory in Freital near Dresden. With a moderate price of only 16.50 Deutsche Mark (east) it was affordable for the young people. Thus it became a typical beginner’s camera in East Germany. Estimated 1.7 million Start were sold. The first model of 1951 (or 1952?) had just a sports finder, its other features were like those of contemporary smart Bakelite cameras: two apertures, modes time and instant (1/30 sec.), screw tube and simple lens (Duplar 1:8, 2 elements in 2 groups). It was licensed by Hungarian and Polish camera makers.
The second Pouva Start version of 1956 was a little smarter, with optical finder and weather symbols for the apertures. The West German Hama distributed a similar bakelite camera, made by Apparatebau und Kamerafabrik in Monheim. This copy, the Hamaphot P56L, had an Original-Tricomat-6.5cm lens, a flash synchronized shutter, and a flash shoe.
|Produced||about 1950s, West-Germany|
|Lens||Tricomat-DGM, 65mm, f/8 and f/16|
|Focus Range||1m – infinity|
|Shutter||Leaf, 1 blade|
|Shutter speeds||about 1/30 and B|
|Other||Cable release socket
Accessory shoe and flash sync port
|Serial number||No number|
The Bella was a line of cheap but attractive and well-built 120, 127 roll film and 35mm cameras made by Bilora in Germany. The Bellas went through several revisions over the life of the name. The body was based on alloy castings, with added leather-effect covering – in various colour combinations. Each was styled a little more like a 35mm camera than a roll film one. The back was removable for film loading, and most models featured a different, large back catch.
The Bella 44-1 was also sold by Ansco, rebadged as the Ansco Lancer. Bilora also used the names Roxa, Bonita and Reporter for Bella variants.
- Manufacturer: Bilora, Germany
- Shutter: B, 1/50, 1/100s
- In production: 1953-1966
FERRANIA – CONDOR 1Dodano: 03.02.2012
This camera resembling a Leica, with its three windows in frontage (including two for the rangefinder), was manufactured since 1947 in Florence, then in Milan. It was conceived by Officine Galileo, a manufacturer of optics since many years. Ferrania, hitherto a manufacturer of consumables and bottom-of-the-range cameras joined Galileo to subcontract the manufacture a top-of-the-range camera. Certain models can to be found without the Ferrania inscription.
In spite of certain resemblances to Leica, this Italian camera has a fixed collapsible lens. Its Iscus Rapid shutter is powerful, since it allows speeds to 1/500 second. The lens is Eliog 3,5/5 cm.
Kodak No. 2 Hawk-Eye (Model “C”)
This is the “Kodak No.2 Hawkeye (Model “C”), which was produced by Kodak from about 1924 to 1927. From 1913 to the early 1930s there were many different models and versions of the “No. 2 Hawkeye” produced.
Overall the “Model C” is your typical Kodak box camera from the 1920s. This camera itself is mainly constructed of wood, metal, and cardboard. The rear part of the camera appears to be made of metal, with cardboard layer covered in a thin leather. The front part of the camera for the most part is made of wood, which also had a thin leather covering. The “Model C” proved to be so popular that it was even reissued as the “Anniversary Kodak” in 1930, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Kodak Company.
On a standard roll of 120 film, you will get eight 6 by 9 cm frames on the negative. The viewfinder is a bit odd because it is very small, and the image that appears in it is usually quite dim. The camera’s shutter is a simple rotating disc/spring attached to a two-way leaver; which is a common shutter mechanism for box cameras produced during this era. The shutter speed is approximately 1/30th to 1/40th of a second. The controls of the camera are very simple, there is no aperture settings, or shutter speed control; just the two-way shutter leaver and advance key.
I often hear from people and other antique dealers describing the camera as “Nice camera, great shape, but the lens is missing”. This always makes me smile, because they do not realise that the camera’s meniscus lens is actually behind the shutter.
Another thing that I found surprising is the number of people that have no idea how to open the camera. To open it all you do is unhook the two latches, one on the top and the other on the right side of the camera. Then you pull out the advance key, and the rear part of the camera should easily separate from the main chassis.
Kodak Instamatic 277X
The Kodak Instamatic 277X was a 126 cartridge film camera introduced by Kodak in January 1977 and continued until 1985 – one of a long line of Instamatics. The 277X had a Kodak Reomar lens with aperture setting by pictograms or distance for flash provided by magicubes.
Danes, 16.12.12 sem se sprehajal po sejmu starin v Muggi in na celem sejmu naletel na ta fotoaparat. Po nekaj ogledih, nekajminutnem pregovarjanju s prodajalko sva prišla do cene 30€. Tako sem v ceni dobil:
Fotoaparat: Zenit 122 (letnik 1991)
Objektiv: HELIOS 44M-5 58mm f2 (letnik 1991)
Adapter: KENKO 2X TELEPLUS MC4
Flash: National PE-145
in celo torbico 🙂
This Zenit model features an ABS plastic body and a TTL light meter, displaying on the right of the viewfinder as red LEDs, for over and under exposure, and a green one for correct settings. (The earliest versions had a system using two red LEDs.) The ground-glass focusing screen has microprism and split-image focus aids.
The focal plane shutter has speeds from 1/30 to 1/500 + В.
There is a self-timer, set by first locking down the shutter release, then setting a thumbwheel on the (photographer’s) right-hand end of the camera, and then firing the timer using the button on the front, below the 122 marking; below that is the self-timer indicator.
Navodila (USER MANUAL)
Vir: kremlinoptics, camerapedia
The Zorki-4K is a 1970s Soviet-era 35mm film rangefinder camera. While KMZ did produce a Zorki-5 and a Zorki-6, the Zorki-4K body is actually the latest camera in the line, with a total of 524.610 cameras produced from 1972 to 1978. Latin Zorki-4K = Cyrillic Зоркий-4K and means Sharp Sight.
The Zorki-4K is basically a Zorki-4 with the addition of a fixed take-up spool and a film advance lever instead of the knurled knob. The KMZ logo was moved to the left so it would not be covered by the advance lever and leave room for a rubber lever stop. Its standard lenses are M39 screw mount Jupiter-8 50mm f/2 or Industar-50 50mm f/3.5. Shutter is cloth horizontal focal plane with speed 1-1/1000 +B.
Main difference from Zorki-4: It has shutter lever cock
Vir: Fotua, Camerapedia
The Praktica LB has an uncoupled exposure meter using a selenium cell. No batteries are needed to power the exposure meter. An updated version, the LB 2, had some minor changes such as a plastic-tipped film advance lever and a chrome shutter speed dial, rather than black. Both the LB and LB 2 lack a self-timer.
The Bessa family of Voigtlander, Germany is one of the best and sought after medium format RF in the market, began around 1930s to compete with Zeiss’s, some were 6x6cm like Baby Bessa 66, mostly they were 6x9cm format, but some are dual format (6×4.5cm and 6x9cm) Prewar Bessa. Afterwards, Bessa RF (Rangefinder) which release with “unique focusing”, with the upperleft knob as it’s cousin Bessa II, 135 relatives are Vito III and Prominent family, to move the lens plane chamber for focusing (the lens has no focusing ring and I was told that they are symmetrical design which rendered more quality, and Contax AX, first Contax AF SLR which use with MF lens used this moving chamber method).
Bessa I, Voigtlander pushed Bessa II, which has coupled rangefinder integrated with viewfinder as from BessaRF. the last of it’s series Bessa II still have the same superior machanical and optical design than the competitors.
The era of Bessa ended when SLR start to take over the market from RF, and 135 format begin to eat up the 120 share. The advantages of Bessa to other RF are :
- The unique or odd machanical and optical design make are very eye catching.
- The unique focusing, the upperleft knob focusing which someone may find difficult to use and handle the camera steady.
Manufacturer : Voigtlander, Germany
Era (Mfg.) : 1930-1950s
Lens : Fixed normal lens (focal lenght 105mm or 110mm)
Format : Medium (120) with 6×4.5, 6x6cm, 6x9cm, or dual format of 6×4.5 and 6×9 (mask needed)
Accessories : Voigtlander Accessories
Models available :
The Bessa was the first production model of the Bessa line. Produced between 1929-1956 by Voigtländer, the Bessa is a medium format folder that uses 120 Film to produce 6×9 photographs. It is the best known and the most sold of all the Voigtlander cameras, with estimations as high as 575,000 cameras made. It was the first self-erecting camera offered by Voigtländer. The Bessa was produced with four different lens types: Voigtar, Vaskar, Skopar, and the Color Skopar. Also there were three shutter leaf options: Prontor, Compur, Compur Rapid. Identifying which options are present in the camera is usually done by inspecting the inner lens ring, and the outer lens ring, or by year of production. One of the revolutionary features of the Bessa was a self-timer which allowed for timed and self photography.
Bessa Production variations by year
- 1929-1949. Self-erecting rollfilm camera. Similar to the “Rollfilm”. There were many sizes and modifications. All models are priced about the same.
- 1929: 6×9, brilliant finder;
- 1930: 6×9 and 6.5×11, brilliant and folding finders;
- 1932: 3.4×5.5 and 6×9, lens on rails, replacement to “Inos”;
- 1935: 4.5×6 and 6×9, shutter release on door;
- 1937: 4.5×6 and 6×9, finder with cover;
- 1945: same as 1937, some models had sync;
- 1949: similar to 1937, better shutters.
Bessa’s produced after 1930 featured two ways to frame your photograph. First there was the “Eye level sports finder” located in the top of the camera under a metal hood. You would simply open the spring loaded hood to reviel two square brackets, the front bracket usually housed a glass lens that would assist in determining the actual viewing angle of the lens. Although some models did not feature this glass aid the process for framing your image through the sports finder was the same. Alight both square brackets and press the shutter release. The second framing option offered on Bessa’s produced after 1930 is the “Brilliant Finder”. Operated in much the same manor as a TLR viewfinder, the Brilliant Finder offered greater accuracy which eased composition.